Design Optimization of Neurovascular Devices for Blood Flow Modulation and Deep Brain Electrical Monitoring
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This research covers the design and optimization of two novel endovascular devices for monitoring and treatment of cerebral pathologies, EEG Monitoring, and intra-cranial aneurysms. Focus was placed on optimization of deliverability within tortuous and more distal anatomy and ensuring functionality in treatment and monitoring. In both devices, navigability and deployability are paramount to the success of the treatment and outcome of the patient. Thus device design needs to be optimized to facilitate both function and deployment. Currently, no device exists on the market that can be deployed intravascularly to monitor and record EEG signals, so a device was developed that could be deployed within the vasculature of the brain and continuously capture the electrical activity of that region of the brain. Design of the device needed to take into account the fragility and narrowness of the target vasculature while ensuring that the device would be able to acquire signals without interference of other electrophysiological processes and allowing for full retrievability once the study was completed. Furthermore, the device needed to be biocompatible so that there would be no adverse effect from long term placement. A device was designed and constructed based on a conventional neurovascular guidewire that could be advanced into the circle of Willis and remain in place for a long period of time that was able to capture signal with relatively good response. The device was able to be withdrawn without incident and without any ill effect to the animal. Another application of the design optimization is in the design of novel flow diverting stents for treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Current treatment of aneurysms involving stenting the weakened area of vessel and then filling the aneurysm sack with a fine platinum coil. The treatment developed in this research utilized a coated Solitaire AB device to eliminate the need for coiling allowing the aneurysm to heal due to the flow diversion. This device required similar specifications as the intravascular EEG, e.g. retrievability, deployability, biocompatibility, etc. A device was designed based on the Solitaire AB that would divert flow from the aneurysm allowing for healing and reconstruction of the vessel wall. The device was found to have optimal deployability, and retrievability while allowing for change in positioning. Both devices were evaluated in 3D printed vascular phantoms as well as live animal trials for the EEG Device.