The Role of Transnational Municipal Network in Building Institutional Capacity for Governing Low Carbon Development in the City of Bogor, Indonesia
Wimbadi, Ramanditya Wimbardana
MetadataShow full item record
Cities around the world are connected in transnational municipal networks (e.g. ICLEI and the C40) that facilitate collaborative work to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Initially, the members were predominantly cities in Europe and North America, but the number has been growing significantly over the past decade with the involvement of cities from developing countries. Previous experience has shown that such alliances facilitate capacity building for urban stakeholders in the Northern Hemisphere to govern low carbon development. However, there is still limited exploration on how cities from the Global South capitalize transnational municipal networks to enhance their capacity for low carbon development governance as they are facing rapid urban growth and increasing demand for fossil fuel-based energy. This research is aimed to explore whether and how a transnational municipal network empowers capacity of urban stakeholders for low carbon development in a developing country. Through a case study approach, I examine the involvement of urban stakeholders in the City of Bogor (Indonesia) in ICLEI network. I performed in-depth interview and secondary data collection to depict influencing factors, process, and implications of the capacity building. I also conducted Social Network Analysis (SNA) to construct the involved stakeholders’ role and their relation among others. This study found that ICLEI, the network administrative organization, deploys four main functions to build local capacity in Bogor: 1) technical assistance, 2) information exchange, 3) financial assistance, and 4) political advocacy. The process involves collaboration with multiple organizations beyond the network membership. Working with a large number of entities, ICLEI fails to keep the collaboration intact. Lack of human resources, selective participation, and single coordinator mechanism force the local stakeholders to be more passive in the process. Eventually, the collaboration is beneficial only for certain entities who work closely with ICLEI or have top priority programs in low carbon development. This research recommends a transnational municipal network administrator to place staff in their city members to maintain the collaboration with local stakeholders. The implication of the capacity building should be evaluated when there is no presence and intervention of the administrator during other planning and policy-making process pertaining emission mitigation.