The Development and Initial Validation of the Craving Distress and Disruption
Coleman, Deonna Marie
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Relapse is common among people with drug addiction, especially when it comes to cigarette smokers (Garvey, Bliss, Hitchcock, Heinold, & Rosner, 1992). Although craving is a widely accepted feature of addiction and often thought to be a prominent cause of relapse, the association between craving and use is only moderate at best (Gass, Motschman, & Tiffany, 2014). However, there is emerging evidence that craving may lead to distress and disruption in an individual’s life and that, in turn, promotes relapse. To date, there has been no explicit, multi-item assessment of craving distress and disruption. In an effort to address this issue, the present research describes the development of the Craving Distress and Disruption Questionnaire (CDDQ). A total of 297 participants who smoked daily and had made an attempt to quit smoking within the past six months were recruited though Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Participants’ levels of craving were compared to their levels of distress and disruption due to craving during their most recent quit attempt. The CDDQ had items that examined distress due to craving as well as disruption cause by craving in three distinct domains, cognitive, behavioral, and social. Although we did not find distress and disruption due to craving to be a significant predictor of duration of quit attempt, the study resulted in the development and validation of the Craving Distress and Disruption Questionnaire. This psychometric evaluation is comprised of two distinct, but highly related factors that show the impact of craving on functioning. Factor 1 was comprised mostly of social and behavioral disruption items while Factor 2 was mostly comprised of distress items with a couple cognitive disruption items.