Phosphatidylserine-Based Nanoparticles For Tolerance Induction Towards Therapeutic Proteins
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Phosphatidylserine (PS) is the most abundant negatively charged phospholipid in the cell membrane. Despite comprising 12% of total phospholipid and being restricted primarily in the inner leaflet of the membrane bilayer, the consequences of PS externalization to the outer leaflet is biologically significant, especially in hemostasis and apoptosis. The exposure of PS on the surface of apoptotic cells functions as an “eat me” signal that initiates macrophage recognition, uptake, and removal of the apoptotic debris. The apoptotic process is an immunologically silent event, as these apoptotic cells are cleared without activation of the immune system. There is considerable literature evidence that support the fact that PS is a critical mediator in apoptosis, facilitating the efficient removal of cell debris in order to maintain tolerance to self-proteins by immunosuppressive mechanisms and tissue homeostasis.