Social Studies Curriculum Integration: Classification, Framing, and Teacher Autonomy
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Instructional time spent on elementary social studies has waned in the context of high stakes testing of math and English Language Arts. Integrating social studies within an English Language Arts instructional block creates learning opportunities that more closely align with recommendations from the National Council for the Social Studies (2009) for increased breadth and depth of study through a weakened classification of subjects (Bernstein, 1975). An integrated approach may demonstrate weak classification structures within the classroom, but a scripted and mandated program signals the potential for strong framing and control in the building and district.