MECHANICAL ASSESSMENT OF 3D PRINTED PATIENT SPECIFIC PHANTOMS FOR SIMULATION OF MINIMALLY INVASIVE IMAGE GUIDED PROCEDURES
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Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms can reproduce accurate patient geometry and provide precise tools for Endovascular Image Guided Interventions (EIGI) simulations. These phantoms have been used previously for device testing and physician practice; however, there is not a validation tool for these phantoms, ensuring they accurately replicate physiologic conditions. These phantoms have no previous testing completed to support they simulate EIGI’s correctly for physician practice or device testing. In this thesis, new 3DP phantoms were proposed and tested which mimic the arterial wall elasticity and surface properties and demonstrate their utility in comprehensive EIGI simulations. Compliance and friction of various 3DP materials were investigated to assess the mechanics of these materials and ultimately select materials or best to mimic a natural vessel. 3DP tubes, idealized models, and patient specific vascular phantoms were fabricated and tested. Various endovascular procedures were simulated using an Interventional Device Testing Equipment (IDTE) 2000, which measures push/pull force used to actuate endovascular devices during EIGIs. Tubes were created simulating a carotid artery, idealized phantoms were created using a sine wave shape for material understanding, and patient specific phantoms were based on CT- angiography volumes were. The phantoms were coated with a hydrophilic material to mimic vascular surface properties. It was found that material and wall thickness affects the compliance of a vessel, in which a healthy and diseased vessel can be simulated. When simulating EIGI’s with the IDTE- 2000, the force needed to advance devices in neurovascular phantoms varied based on tortuosity, material and coating. Harder materials required less force for advancement and a hydrophilic coating reduced maximum force. IDTE 2000 results of neurovascular models were compared to hand manipulation of guidewire access using a six-axis force sensor with forces varying based on the device used. The results of this study indicate that we can build and utilize 3DP phantoms to simulate EIGI’s and can mimic wall properties of in vivo vessels based on material and device used. The wall mechanics can also simulate the difference between a healthy and a diseased patient based on vessel compliance.