Hemodynamics due to calf muscle activity– biophysical modeling and experiments using frequency domain near infrared spectroscopy in healthy humans
CHEUNG, MAN CHEUNG
MetadataShow full item record
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a condition that occurs due to dysfunction of the venous wall and/or valves in the leg veins, making it difficult for blood to return to the heart from the legs leading to venous stasis. Blood flow from the periphery to the right atrium is referred to as venous return. This flow back to the heart against gravity during standing is facilitated by lower limb muscle contraction that compresses the local intramuscular and deep veins. This increases the intraluminal pressure that drives this venous flow while retrograde flow is prevented through the action of a system of muscular venous pumps and bicuspid valves. Here, aging and many cardiovascular diseases are related to abnormal cardiac output that may be partly due to inadequate venous return. CVI can develop because of blood clotting in the deep veins of the legs, a disease known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which is also known as post-thrombotic syndrome. An estimated 40 percent of people in the United States have CVI.