Estrogen Receptor Beta and p53 Signaling Crosstalk in Triple Negative Breast Cancer
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Estrogen receptor has long been the most effective diagnostic and prognostic tool in the management of breast cancer. For ER-positive breast cancers, this means better prognosis, more available treatment options, lower recurrence rates, and better overall survival. Meanwhile, ER-negative breast cancers have more aggressive disease phenotypes and fewer treatment options, culminating in poorer prognoses. However, this broad distinction between ER-positive and ER-negative tumors takes only one ER status into account. Until 1996, ERα was the only known estrogen receptor. With the discovery of another estrogen receptor called ERβ in 1996, there are two major estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ. ERα is thought to be the predominant ER in breast cancer, with every 2 out of 3 breast tumors being ERα-positive, and notably, is the only ER that determines the aforementioned “ER status”. More and more studies conclude that ERβ expression may be just as widespread as ERα. However, the role that ERβ plays in breast cancer is not straightforward, and many studies offer conflicting views of ERβ. The broad objective of this dissertation work is to contribute to the elucidation of ERβ in the breast cancer field, as it pertains to p53.