Comparing Interactions of Commensal and Pathogenic Oral Microbes with Phagocytic Cells.
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AbstractBackground: Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent diseases in humans. It has a complex etiology, though the main pathogenic factors are oral bacteria which are present in dental biofilm deposited on tooth surfaces. Some oral microbes, such as P. gingivalis, have the ability to evade the immune response and, as a keystone pathogen, inititates dysbiosis in the oral biofilm, while others, including some of which are generally considered commensal, such as S. gordonii. Against this background are a number of innate immune cells that interact with oral microbes, including oral macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Understanding the differences between interactions between various host cell interactions with oral microbes may lead to an increased understanding of the importance of each cell type in their roles in the development of periodontal disease. Aims: Compare rates of phagosomal killing ability and the inflammatory response of macrophages and DCs in response to traditionally pathogenic P. gingivalis and commensal S. gordonii. Materials and Methods: The bacterial uptake and intracellular clearance capability of macrophages was determined by an antibiotic protection-based assay. ELISA assays were used to test for cytokine release differences between the macrophage types upon interaction with P. gingivalis and S. gordonii. Results: P. gingivalis and S. gordonii are different in cytokine stimulation and survival within cells. P. gingivalis tended to survive more within the phagocytic cells, and it also induced more modest levels of cytokine released from the cells. Conclusion: This study directly compares differences in the ability of oral microbes (i.e. P. gingivalis and S. gordonii) to evade, inhibit, alter and survive the innate immune response by a number of phagocytes, which adds to the information on differences in oral microbe ability to alter inflammation resolution.