A CBCT Assessment of Craniofacial Morphology, Malocclusion and Airway in Orthodontic Patients with ADHD
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Purpose: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterotypic developmental disorder which may be manifested as different behaviors across lifespan. Evidence on the relation between malocclusion, sleep-disordered breathing, and ADHD is conflicting. The aim of this retrospective CBCT study was: to assess the craniofacial morphology, occlusion, and airway dimensions in adolescents with ADHD compared to a matched sample without ADHD.Methods: Records of orthodontic patients were screened between July 2014 and 2016. 29 ADHD subjects (M=17 and F=12) and 58 controls (M=21 and F=37) were randomly selected. Volumetric and linear measurements of the upper airway were conducted at 4 planes (A-D). Lateral cephalograms were constructed to measure craniofacial morphology and malocclusion.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the overall airway volume, the craniofacial morphology, and malocclusion between the groups. A significant difference in the widths of planes A, C and D were found. With narrower widths in ADHD patients, as well as in the area of plane D (lower hypopharynx).Conclusion: This is the first study to characterize the upper airway dimensions, occlusion, and craniofacial morphology of orthodontic adolescents with ADHD. Differences in upper airway widths at the 4 planes warrant future studies.