Empirical Analysis of Horizontal Ground Displacement Generated by Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreads
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This report describes empirical models used the estimate the horizontal ground displacement caused by liquefaction-induced lateral spreads. The models were developed from earthquake, geological, topographic, and soil factors that affect ground displacement. Case histories of lateral spreading from the following earthquakes were used: 1) 1906 San Francisco; 2) 1964 Alaska; 3) 1964 Niigata, Japan; 4) 1971 San Fernando, California; 5) 1979 Imperial Valley, California; 6) 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu, Japan; 7) 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho; and 8) 1987 Superstition Hills, California. A multiple linear regression (MLR) is used to develop the empirical models from the compiled data. Two general models are derived: one for free face failures and one for ground slope failures. The predictive performance of the proposed empirical models is determined by a comparison of the predicted displacements with those actually measured at the case history sites. The first appendix presents a discussion of the independent variables used in the MLR analyses. The minitab analyses are presented in the second appendix.