Correlation Between Sitting Height and Vertical Face Dimensions in Class I African Black Adolescents
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Purpose: To determine the correlation between vertical face height and sitting height in pubertal and post-pubertal African black adolescents, assess for any sexual dimorphism, and to determine predictors for the vertical face height. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 562 pubertal and post-pubertal South African black adolescents. Inclusion criteria were healthy African black females and males, chronological age range of 9-19 years old, no previous orthodontic treatment, and Class I skeletal and dental growth patterns. Lateral cephalograms, left hand wrist radiographs, and anthropometric measurements including weight and stature, and its components: sitting height and leg length were collected by one investigator. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between the vertical facial components and the sitting height by gender. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of vertical facial heights. Results: Five hundred sixty-two African adolescents (289 females, 273 males; mean chronological age = 13.3 years old (SD=2.54), mean skeletal age = 12.83 (SD=2.63) were included. There was a strong correlation between the chronological age and the skeletal GP ages of the sample (r=0.89, P < 0.001). Overall, the sitting height showed a moderate correlation with the total face height (r=0.58, p < 0.001) and its components: the upper face height (r=0.46, p < 0.001) and the lower face height (r=0.49, p < 0.001). When assessed by gender, in males, the sitting height had a slightly stronger correlation with the lower face height (r=0.51, p < 0.001) as compared to the upper face height (r=0.45, p < 0.001). In females, the correlation was similar between the two components. The multivariable linear regression models suggested that sitting height, sex, leg length, BMI, and chronological age were good predictors for the total face height of the sample (R Square=0.46). Chronological age, sitting height, sex, and BMI predicted lower face height (R Square=0.33). Sitting height, leg length, sex, and BMI predicted upper face height (R Square=0.29). For females, the sitting height, leg length and BMI were good predictors for the total face height (R Square=0.42), the lower face height (R Square=0.29), and the upper face height (R Sqaure=0.25). The sitting height was also a predictor for the Y axis angle (R Square=0.01). For males, the skeletal age, sitting height, chronological age, BMI, and leg length were predictors for the total face height (R Square=0.44), upper face height (R Square=0.26), and lower face height (R Square=0.34). Chronological age, sitting height, and BMI were predictors for the lower face height (R Square=0.34). Skeletal age, leg length, and sitting height predicted the upper face height (R Square=0.26). None of the anthropometric measurements predicted the males’ Y axis angle.Conclusions: A positive correlation was found between the sitting height and the vertical face heights in both genders. The multivariable regression models suggested that the sitting height was a good predictor for all the vertical dimensions of the face for both genders. The sitting height could be a beneficial tool in determining the timing of the vertical face growth in the orthodontic office.