The Marmara, Turkey Earthquake of August 17, 1999: Reconnaissance Report
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The report documents the damage caused by the 1999 earthquake that affected the Marmara region in the Kocaeli Province of Turkey. It discusses the seismological characteristics (magnitude, seismic moment, epicenter, hypocenter) of the earthquake. A comparison of the North Anatolian fault with the San Andreas fault is given. The earthquake's geotechnical effects are described including site response, liquefaction, landslides, subsidence, building foundations, and the response of improved soil and earth structures. The section on structural damage discusses building characteristics and building codes, soft first stories, and steel structures. Damage to highway bridges, railroads, and port facilities is described in detail. The performance of industrial facilities is detailed including business interruptions. The section on lifelines includes descriptions of damage to water systems, wastewater facilities, electric power systems, and natural gas pipelines. The social and political effects of the earthquake are examined and an assessment of the emergency response is given. The section on disaster recovery includes a description of life in temporary shelters, the restoration of education, and health care facilities. The final section features the use of new technologies (satellite images, global positioning systems, and GPS-GIS interfaces) to gather information about the effects of the earthquake.